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Gayle in MD
03-28-2011, 09:43 AM
<div class="ubbcode-block"><div class="ubbcode-header">Quote:</div><div class="ubbcode-body">Pan-Corporatism: Culture of Repression and Deprivatization.
by Antifascist

We are living in a world in which nobody is free, in which hardly anybody is secure, in which it is almost impossible to be honest and to remain free. (George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier, 1937)
I will discuss “corporatism” differently to understand another characteristic of corporatism other than the merging of Industry with the State—that other characteristic is corporatism's “repressive” quality. Let us examine the power of State Corporatism to use cultural values, norms, and customs to repress members of society. Marcuse calls this “surplus repression.” This repression is “surplus” because it goes beyond the basic repression of instincts required for civilization and survival. “Surplus” repression is required for streamlining tyrannical domination for exploitation and total control directly, or indirectly through proxy.

I use the term, “Pan” (the Greek word for “all”) to describe the all invasiveness that the corporation has in our personal lives—the personal life is “deprivatized” using classic marketing tools evolved by the public relations industry and polling think tanks. The living room and the bedroom are invaded by “public opinion” polls telling us what is and is not the norm. It is the total administration of our private life by outside forces that persuade us to sacrifice personal goals and dreams for the sake of endless manic production and the pursuit of monetary profit. Quite moments by the ocean that inspire the soul and re-generate creative energy are only rare and transitory just as personal happiness is transitory.

Even labor is designed to be exhausting so leisure “off hours” time is passive and promotes continued consumerism. So the personal inner life is “repressed” at the expensive of creativity (Adorno as Antidote). I am amazed not so much by the talent an artist might have since everyone is creative, but rather that such creativity is not completely destroyed, or repressed by the socialization process meant to manufacture authoritarian persons that unquestioningly accept legitimized authority and demand others to submit also.

The private personal life is the property of the parasitical corporation--a state created surrogate proxy for control--by virtue of its right to make profit from the life activities of its citizens (U.S.A., Inc.). Even gratuitous free personal time during unemployment is documented and scrutinized by State created privatized corporate administrative tyrannies maintaining a running worker profile and history to share with other private tyrannies. Surveillances by either a private tyranny, or a State agency are still an invasion of the private Human space—the private individual is always viewed as an object of production and exploitation. <span style='font-size: 14pt'>The fascist alliance of private corporate tyrannies and State authority is able to “deprivatize” individual Human existence (MATRIX). Any restriction placed on private corporations is circumvented by State power: correspondingly, private tyrannous corporations overcome any regulatory restriction by appealing to State power resulting in a total administrative-bureaucratic apparatus for planning, management and domination of every aspect of Human life (ChoicePoint has 10 billion records on individuals and businesses). Technological advances in cybernetic are not adopted to create human leisure time and reduce the necessity of wage labor, but are instead utilized to reinforce the work-income relation and streamline financial exploitation in the form of fees, fines, taxes, and total surveillance in a digital Police State. Not even the most repressive Communist totalitarian state has had this capacity of total bureaucratic-administration of private Life. Everything from one’s computer, to one’s buying habits, illnesses, education, and even one’s “free time“ belongs to the Corporation euphemistically as marketing research “data.” Privacy is an illusion, but the language of counterfeit privacy is all-pervasive as in “my democracy,” “your vote,” and “my supervisor</span>.”

The urgent issue here is how government is using private industry as proxy to setup a global digital Police State (Venezuela Floridated). Cybernetics is the central element is construction of a surveillance state to control and monitor the actions and thoughts of its citizens. There is a swarm of activity and major revolutionary changes going on in the court systems for total administration of the private life. All the current legislative activity dealing with bankruptcy laws, tort reform, Supreme Court justice selection, and civil right laws are preparatory legislative groundwork to build a legal infrastructure for this digital police state (Surveillance on the Job). The media is silent. Like wheat growing in the field, one day soon it will be over our heads.

The Mind is de-mystified by the emphasis on technical thinking, or calculative thinking. True spirituality is the first casualty of total domination of the developing individual. The economic process is damaging to the individual's self image by labeling persons by their able to calculate and produce “results” according to the strict framework of corporate culture. Corporate business models go far beyond production and apply to all spheres of human existence. They legitimize their constructed proprietary meanings of efficient, educated, moral, successful and intelligent. Individual potential is arbitrarily limited by authoritarian expectation of mindless conformity and obedience for "market" needs--not human actualization. Psychological QI tests are designed to detect and enforce conformity, obedience, and stereotyped thinking that is both controllable and controlling. Rationality means the ability to control the production process and follow orders unquestionably. Good moral character is “obedience.” So domination becomes internal as well as external so that the individual internalizes these patterns of social control and acts in a way they believe that social powers and institutions require them to act. The subverted inner-self becomes self-deceptive, distorted, anxious, unhappy, and confusingly frustrated by becoming its own jailer (BTK)
(Psychopaths and the American Dream).

The body is de-sexualized through violence, and discipline for discipline’s sake to mold a “professional” person needed by corporate tyrannies to create a ready, submissive, and abundant labor force. The “gender police” make sure through peer pressure and economic punishment that conventional gender roles are maintained primarily for reproduction and not for pleasure, self-actualization, or self-fulfillment. Non-conformity to gender roles- especially masculine roles-is viewed by Authority as the ultimate act of rebellion precisely because it is the most private sphere of an individual’s life. Sexuality is localized to genitalia to de-sexualize the rest of the body for use as an instrument of production. Sexuality re-emerges in the psyche as the will to power, aggression, and exploitation. Sex depersonalized is tolerated as a commodity. The fascist state is interested in sexuality only as a mechanism for social control--an object of academic cultural research to explore sexual identity as an effective method of torture and personality profiling.

I think of the many billions of horses born and used as labor animals. They are born into the Harness, and live a life of toil and unfreedom, never to develop self-consciousness and become aware that their suffering is from the Harness. Likewise, our fellow Human Being is unconsciously stupidified in modern American society by a popular culture of moronization, bureaucratic repression, and Pan-Corporate Fascism.

Life could be as wonderful as our Dreams and as beautiful as Art if we only resolved to make it so.

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Gayle in MD
03-28-2011, 09:49 AM
<div class="ubbcode-block"><div class="ubbcode-header">Quote:</div><div class="ubbcode-body">A very popular argument by the Right is say that the Nazis were Leftwing, when in fact they were Rightwing in both Germany and the United States.

The Nazis were pro-Christian, anti-communist, certainly anti-Marxist, imprisoned atheist and labor leaders--that sounds right-wing to me! So since the Nazis embraced the Catholic Church (and the Church embraced Hitler), should we call Christianity fascist? And why did the Nazis view "liberals" as their enemy?

In America, German Fascism dazzled many American leaders of capitalist industry. They were William Randolph Hearst, Joseph Kennedy(JFK’s father), Charles Lindbergh, John Rockefeller, Andrew Mellon(head of Alcoa, banker, and Secretary of Treasury), DuPont, General Motors, Standard Oil (now Exxon), Henry Ford, ITT, Allen Dulles (later head of the CIA), Prescott Bush (don’t forget him), National City Bank, and General Electric.

In October 1938, Lindbergh was presented by Goering, on behalf of the Fuehrer, the Service Cross of the German Eagle for his contributions to aviation.

GM and Ford built nearly 90% of the armored 3-ton half-trucks and 70% of the Nazi medium and heavy-duty trucks used in WWII. Greame K. Howard, Vice President of General Motors, wrote and published “American and a New World Order” and argued that America should cooperate with the Nazis.


The Du Ponts financed the Black Legion that was an American Nazi group that used violence against unions and was connected to the Ku Klux Klan.
Williams Randolph Hearst was a real fan of the Nazi party. Remember those magazine pictures of Hilter’s retreat in Germany. Did you ever wonder how Better Homes and Gardens magazine got those pictures for the 1938 article? Hearst and Hilter were friends!

Thomas J. Watson and the Hollerith number tattoos.

And this is the worst of all. Thomas J. Watson, the head executive of IBM, leased data sorting computers using IBM's Hollerith punch card technology in 1933 to the Nazis enabling them to identify, find, and collect the victims of the Holocaust. Those numbers tattooed on the Jewish prisoners were of the Hollerith numbering system. Adolph Hitler awarded Watson a medal for his contribution!
http://www.ibmandtheholocaust.com/

Part 2: I.G. Economic Warfare & Traitors In High Places

The criminal behavior and lack of ethics illustrated by Watson's early career was pervasive between the wars. When the Nazis seized power, Watson saw an opportunity to expand in Germany. In the depths of the Great Depression, Watson increased IBM's investment in Germany by nearly a million dollars. Even more gratifying was the secret pact Watson concluded in October, 1933 which gave Dehomag commercial powers beyond the German borders. Previously, all IBM subsidiaries had been confined to a single country. With Dehomag now established as the defacto "IBM Europe," the Nazis were able to conduct statistical services throughout Europe. In effect, Watson had established a cartel much like I.G. Farben's.

In an attempt to justify Watson's, and IBM's dealings with the Nazis, many suggest that Watson was not a fascist, but simply a ruthless businessman. Evidence, however, suggests that if Watson was not a fascist, he was at the very least a great admirer of fascism. At a 1937 sales convention Watson said:

"I want to pay tribute(to the) great leader, Benito Mussolini. I have followed the details of his work very carefully since he assumed leadership. Evidence of his leadership can be seen on all sides. Mussolini is a pioneer…. Italy is going to benefit greatly."26

This is not the only evidence of Watson's support and admiration for fascism. He also had an autographed picture of Mussolini hanging in his living room for years. Watson was quoted saying:

"we should pay tribute to Mussolini for establishing this spirit of loyal support." 26

In a private letter to Reich Economic Minister, Hjalmar Schacht, Watson wrote:

"the necessity of extending a sympathetic understanding to the German people and their aims under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. 26

Watson wrote the letter years after Hitler seized power, and described Nazi aggression toward neighboring countries as a dynamic policy. The letter ended with:

"an expression of my highest esteem for himself (Hitler), his country and his people." 26

While Watson's praise for Hitler and Mussolini do not supply definitive proof that Watson was a fascist, it certainly confirms the conclusion of Harvard professor, Gaetano Salvemini, that corporate America was in sympathy with fascism.


In 1938 Henry Ford received the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle as a birthday present from Adolph Hitler and Ford refused to return the medal even after the war.

And get this. After the war, Ford and IBM demanded the US government reimburse their companies for the loaned assets destroyed in the war. And we, the American people, paid them!

The Nazi party was greatly impressed with American scientists’ study of Eugenics that claimed social ills were the result of genetic inferiority and not social conditions. In 1907 Indiana first legalized forced sterilization of the inferior-- the poor, prisoners, and the mentally ill. The Rockefeller Foundation funded and endorsed eugenics programs. The impression American eugenics had on the Nazis cannot be understated.

More history of how American Corporations overwhelmingly supported, exported material and knowledge, protected Nazi interests during the 1920s.


The Roaring 20s and the Roots of American Fascism
Part 2: Economic Warfare & Traitors in High Places
http://www.spiritone.com/~gdy52150/1920sp2.html

...Between the cartel agreements of I.G. and the monopolistic behavior of our own robber barons, the Dulles brothers had no shortage of investors willing to invest in Germany. In 1940, Professor Gaetano Salvemini of Harvard was quoted as saying that 100 percent of American big business was sympathetic towards fascism. Corporate America's support for fascism was so great that U.S. Ambassador to Germany William Dodd proclaimed:

"A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy." 21

Americans have never been told the truth about the extent of corporate America's involvement with the Nazis. The media has spoon-fed Americans into believing that only a handful of companies traded with the Nazis. Nothing could be further from the truth. In reality, well over 300 American corporations were arming Nazi Germany during the war in violation of the law.

Many of these corporations took extraordinary steps to maintain communication with their German offices and to conceal their Nazi involvement from the U.S. government. They could have severed all links with Nazi Germany, but instead chose to continue support a regime at war with their own country. In doing so, these corporations became willing accomplices to the Holocaust, traitors to their country and guilty of war crimes. Those responsible for such actions and crimes should have received justice at the end of a hangman's noose. Sadly, none were even charged.

Even the bluest of the "blue chips," IBM, actively sought business with the Nazis during the war. Dehomag, IBM's German subsidiary, supplied the Hollerith machines that played a prominent role in the Holocaust. Without Hollerith machines the efficiency with which the Holocaust was carried out would have been impossible. The roundup of the Jews would have been slowed to a snail's pace by forcing the Nazis to divert additional manpower to the task of locating their Jewish victims. Hollerith machines were located in every concentration camp and were serviced by Dehomag representatives under the full appraisal of the New York office.

The inclusion of IBM provides a look at the mindset of corporate America. Edwin Black's IBM and the Holocaust details the ruthlessness of corporate America in its pursuit of profits. 22 When the Nazis came to power, IBM was under the direction of Thomas Watson, who actively sought out a contract to provide the equipment for the Nazi census.

Up until then, Watson's career had been less than ethically stellar. Watson learned his business skills from John Patterson, the ruthless founder of the National Cash Register (NCR). Watson rose quickly in the ranks of NCR, learning to use frivolous lawsuits against competitors, as well as the threat of lawsuits against competitors' customers. At NCR, Watson was placed in charge of driving out competitors selling used equipment. He quickly adopted the tactics of the robber barons to establish a monopoly by using predatory pricing, threats of lawsuits, bribes and even smashed storefronts. On February 22, 1912, Watson was indicted for criminal conspiracy to restrain trade and found guilty. 23

The criminal behavior and lack of ethics illustrated by Watson's early career was pervasive between the wars. When the Nazis seized power, Watson saw an opportunity to expand in Germany. In the depths of the Great Depression, Watson increased IBM's investment in Germany by nearly a million dollars. Even more gratifying was the secret pact Watson concluded in October, 1933 which gave Dehomag commercial powers beyond the German borders. Previously, all IBM subsidiaries had been confined to a single country. With Dehomag now established as the defacto "IBM Europe," the Nazis were able to conduct statistical services throughout Europe. In effect, Watson had established a cartel much like I.G. Farben's.

In an attempt to justify Watson's, and IBM's dealings with the Nazis, many suggest that Watson was not a fascist, but simply a ruthless businessman. Evidence, however, suggests that if Watson was not a fascist, he was at the very least a great admirer of fascism. At a 1937 sales convention Watson said:

"I want to pay tribute(to the) great leader, Benito Mussolini. I have followed the details of his work very carefully since he assumed leadership. Evidence of his leadership can be seen on all sides. Mussolini is a pioneer…. Italy is going to benefit greatly."26

This is not the only evidence of Watson's support and admiration for fascism. He also had an autographed picture of Mussolini hanging in his living room for years. Watson was quoted saying:

"we should pay tribute to Mussolini for establishing this spirit of loyal support." 26

In a private letter to Reich Economic Minister, Hjalmar Schacht, Watson wrote:

"the necessity of extending a sympathetic understanding to the German people and their aims under the leadership of Adolf Hitler. 26

Watson wrote the letter years after Hitler seized power, and described Nazi aggression toward neighboring countries as a dynamic policy. The letter ended with:

"an expression of my highest esteem for himself (Hitler), his country and his people." 26

While Watson's praise for Hitler and Mussolini do not supply definitive proof that Watson was a fascist, it certainly confirms the conclusion of Harvard professor, Gaetano Salvemini, that corporate America was in sympathy with fascism.

Before the ink was dry on the Treaty of Versailles, American corporations were rushing to invest and support Germany. The first to support what became the Nazi line was Henry Ford. In the early 1920s, Ford began publishing an anti-Semitic newspaper. Ford was also an early financial supporter of Hitler at a time when the Nazis were virtually unknown.

Another early backer of Hitler and the Nazis were the du Ponts. The power behind the du Pont throne in the 1920s was Irenee du Pont who, like Ford, was a supporter of Hitler before he was known outside Munich. Irenee du Pont followed Hitler's career avidly from the early 1920s on. Du Pont representatives traveled to Germany almost immediately after the armistice to renew their alliance with I.G.

In November 1919, mere months after the armistice was signed, representatives of du Pont and the Badische Company, the principal corporate identity of I.G. Farben in Switzerland, worked out a tentative agreement for the organization of a global corporation to exploit the Haber process for ammonia and nitrate production. Du Pont also sought technical help in the dyestuffs industry. Although a complete agreement was never reached on a grand alliance, the relationship between du Pont, Verinigte Koln-Rottweiler Pulverfabriken (VKR) and Dynamit Aktiengesellschaft (DAG) became closer. At one point, du Pont had roughly three million dollars invested directly in I.G. Farben 24

The most notable aspect of the November 1919 meeting and tentative agreement was the lightning speed with which the German cartels reestablished control over the all-important Haber process for ammonia and nitrate production. All parties had a stake in completing the agreement behind closed doors, sincethe very nature of the agreement was in violation of the armistice. For Germany, it meant control over explosives and fertilizer production, freeing the country from dependence on Chilean nitrates. For du Pont, it was a matter of profits. Before WW II, one of the most profitable periods for du Pont was WW I. During that war, du Pont's profits rose to $230,000,000. The profits from the war were used to buy a controlling share of General Motors. 27

On January 1, 1926, an agreement between du Pont, VCR and DAG was consummated, and was similar to the agreement of the same date between du Pont and Imperial Chemical Industries of Britain. This agreement, debated at length in the 1934 Nye Committee hearings, was found unsigned in du Pont files. It was a gentlemen's agreement detailing exchanges of patents and technical information that could be denied if discovered. In defiance of the Treaty of Versailles banning German companies from selling military explosives, the agreement provided a means by which du Pont could sell German produced explosives. The Nye report provides the best summary of the agreement:

"In other words, though German munitions companies cannot sell abroad, American companies can sell for them, and to our own government at that." 25

In effect, the agreement between du Pont, DAG and VCR reestablished the pre-war cartel between du Pont, Koln-Rottweiler Pulverfabriken and the British Nobel Dynamite Trust. Under the pre-war agreement, du Pont agreed not to erect any powder works in Europe, and the other signers agreed not to erect powder works in the United States. Technical information was exchanged among the signatories, and du Pont agreed to inform the others of the quantity, quality and requirements of all powder sales to the United States government. In 1910, the Justice Department found the agreement to be a violation of anti-trust laws, resulting in the breakup of du Pont powder works and the formation of Atlas Powder and Hercules Powder. Within a few years of the 1910 ruling, du Pont reorganized in Delaware because to the state's lax regulations of corporations.

An agreement between du Pont and Dynamit in 1929 controlled the production of tetrazine, a substance for greatly improved ammunition primers. When WWII began in 1939, Remington (controlled by du Pont) received huge British ammunition orders. Because of a clause in the agreement with I.G. Farben the British received an inferior cartridge lacking tetrazine. 34


"Fascism is on the march today in America. Millionaires are marching to the tune. It will come in this country unless a strong defense is set up by all liberal and progressive forces... A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government, and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy. Aboard ship a prominent executive of one of America's largest financial corporations told me point blank that if the progressive trend of the Roosevelt administration continued, he would be ready to take definite action to bring fascism to America."
-former U.S. ambassador to Germany William Dodd in 1938


So under this version of history all those American capitalists mentioned above were "socialist!"
Reductio ad absurdum!

Here is a summary of the beliefs of Nazi fascism as described in the article Understanding Fascism and anti-Semitism by Geoff Price
http://www.rationalrevolution.net/articles...ing_fascism.htm

1. Social Fascism: Fascism, in the social sense, is ultimately an affirmation of “traditional values”.

2. Fascism was ultimately born out of, and supported by, conservatism and the belief that Western Civilization had become decadent and self-ruinous.

3. So fascism, as it developed, was reactionary; it was a reaction to the perceived problems of modernism, and the immediate perceived threat of Communism.

4. Fascism labeled their enemies as decadent “liberals” and “Social Democrats.”

5. Early on fascism was seen as a movement that embraced Christianity. In Germany fascists promoted what they called “true Christianity”, which was essentially “Christian fundamentalism.”

6. The fascists opposed atheism, modernism, the Enlightenment, intellectualism, liberalism, democracy, Social Democrat activist, Marxism, secularism, true laissez-faire capitalism, and evolutionary theory. What is most important to note about this is that many people, not just the fascists, shared many elements of these same feelings. These sentiments are in essence the definition of right-wing social ideology.

7. Hitler himself complained of evolutionary theory and advocated teaching creationism in the German schools. "God Is With Us": Hitler's Rhetoric and the Lure of "Moral Values" by Maureen Farrell http://www.buzzflash.com/farrell/04/12/far04041.html “The book The German Churches Under Hitler includes his assertion that secular schools should not be tolerated while Hitler's Table Talk quotes him questioning the wisdom in teaching children both creationism and the theory of evolution. "The present system of teaching in schools permits the following absurdity: at 10 a.m. the pupils attend a lesson in the catechism, at which the creation of the world is presented to them in accordance with the teachings of the Bible; and at 11 a.m. they attend a lesson in natural science, at which they are taught the theory of evolution,"he said. "Yet the two doctrines are in complete contradiction. As a child, I suffered from this contradiction, and ran my head against a wall." "

8. In 1929 Mussolini signed the Lateran Treaty with Pope Pius XI. This established Catholicism as the official religion of the State, gave the Pope increased political powers, gave papal sovereignty to Vatican City, ensured that the Catholic religion would be taught in all schools, compensated the Pope with $90 million for the loss of papal property since 1870, and cemented broad Catholic support for Mussolini.

9. The Great Scandal: Christianity's Role in the Rise of the Nazis by Gregory S. Paul http://www.secularhumanism.org/library/fi/paul_23_4.html The Concordat , signed on July 20, 1933, was a classic POLITICAL KICKBACK SCHEME. The Catholic church supported the new dictatorship by endorsing the end of democracy and free speech. In addition it bound its bishops to Hitler’s Reich by means of a loyalty oath and in exchange for supporting Hitler the Catholic church received enormous 1.) tax income and 2.) protection for church privileges. 3.) Religious instruction and prayer in school were reinstated. 4.) Criticism of the church was forbidden.

10. The first concentration camp in Germany was Dachau, which opened in 1933. The primary prisoners of the Dachau camp were Communists, Social Democrats, and atheists. The first camps were essentially for "enemies of the State". Over time Gypsies, homosexuals, and dissenting clergymen were sent to Dachau as well.

So the American NeoCon Fascists have to rewrite history to hide there ideological identity and affinity to the German Nazi Fascists. Otherwise, who would listen to their propaganda?


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Gayle in MD
03-28-2011, 10:16 AM
Identifiers: An Examination of Fascism
Umberto Eco: Eternal Fascism: Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackshirt
Writing in New York Review of Books, 22 June 1995, pp.12-15. Excerpted in Utne Reader, November-December 1995, pp. 57-59.

For the full article, consult the New York Review of Books, purchase the full article online; or purchase Eco's new collection of essays: Five Moral Pieces.


In spite of some fuzziness regarding the difference between various historical forms of fascism, I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. These features cannot be organized into a system; many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism. But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it.
* * *

1. The first feature of Ur-Fascism is the cult of tradition.

Traditionalism is of course much older than fascism. Not only was it typical of counterrevolutionary Catholic thought after the French revolution, but is was born in the late Hellenistic era, as a reaction to classical Greek rationalism. In the Mediterranean basin, people of different religions (most of the faiths indulgently accepted by the Roman pantheon) started dreaming of a revelation received at the dawn of human history. This revelation, according to the traditionalist mystique, had remained for a long time concealed under the veil of forgotten languages -- in Egyptian hieroglyphs, in the Celtic runes, in the scrolls of the little-known religions of Asia.

This new culture had to be syncretistic. Syncretism is not only, as the dictionary says, "the combination of different forms of belief or practice;" such a combination must tolerate contradictions. Each of the original messages contains a sliver of wisdom, and although they seem to say different or incompatible things, they all are nevertheless alluding, allegorically, to the same primeval truth.

As a consequence, there can be no advancement of learning. Truth already has been spelled out once and for all, and we can only keep interpreting its obscure message.

If you browse in the shelves that, in American bookstores, are labeled New Age, you can find there even Saint Augustine, who, as far as I know, was not a fascist. But combining Saint Augustine and Stonehenge -- that is a symptom of Ur-Fascism.

2. Traditionalism implies the rejection of modernism.

Both Fascists and Nazis worshipped technology, while traditionalist thinkers usually reject it as a negation of traditional spiritual values. However, even though Nazism was proud of its industrial achievements, its praise of modernism was only the surface of an ideology based upon blood and earth (Blut und Boden). The rejection of the modern world was disguised as a rebuttal of the capitalistic way of life. The Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, is seen as the beginning of modern depravity. In this sense Ur-Fascism can be defined as irrationalism.

3. Irrationalism also depends on the cult of action for action's sake.

Action being beautiful in itself, it must be taken before, or without, reflection. Thinking is a form of emasculation. Therefore culture is suspect insofar as it is identified with critical attitudes. Distrust of the intellectual world has always been a symptom of Ur-Fascism, from Hermann Goering's fondness for a phrase from a Hanns Johst play ("When I hear the word 'culture' I reach for my gun") to the frequent use of such expressions as "degenerate intellectuals," "eggheads," "effete snobs," and "universities are nests of reds." The official Fascist intellectuals were mainly engaged in attacking modern culture and the liberal intelligentsia for having betrayed traditional values.

4. The critical spirit makes distinctions, and to distinguish is a sign of modernism.

In modern culture the scientific community praises disagreement as a way to improve knowledge. For Ur-Fascism, disagreement is treason.

5. Besides, disagreement is a sign of diversity.

Ur-Fascism grows up and seeks consensus by exploiting and exacerbating the natural fear of difference. The first appeal of a fascist or prematurely fascist movement is an appeal against the intruders. Thus Ur-Fascism is racist by definition.

6. Ur-Fascism derives from individual or social frustration.

That is why one of the most typical features of the historical fascism was the appeal to a frustrated middle class, a class suffering from an economic crisis or feelings of political humiliation, and frightened by the pressure of lower social groups. In our time, when the old "proletarians" are becoming petty bourgeois (and the lumpen are largely excluded from the political scene), the fascism of tomorrow will find its audience in this new majority.

7. To people who feel deprived of a clear social identity, Ur-Fascism says that their only privilege is the most common one, to be born in the same country.

This is the origin of nationalism. Besides, the only ones who can provide an identity to the nation are its enemies. Thus at the root of the Ur-Fascist psychology there is the obsession with a plot, possibly an international one. The followers must feel besieged. The easiest way to solve the plot is the appeal to xenophobia. But the plot must also come from the inside: Jews are usually the best target because they have the advantage of being at the same time inside and outside. In the United States, a prominent instance of the plot obsession is to be found in Pat Robertson's The New World Order, but, as we have recently seen, there are many others.

8. The followers must feel humiliated by the ostentatious wealth and force of their enemies.

When I was a boy I was taught to think of Englishmen as the five-meal people. They ate more frequently than the poor but sober Italians. Jews are rich and help each other through a secret web of mutual assistance. However, the followers of Ur-Fascism must also be convinced that they can overwhelm the enemies. Thus, by a continuous shifting of rhetorical focus, the enemies are at the same time too strong and too weak. Fascist governments are condemned to lose wars because they are constitutionally incapable of objectively evaluating the force of the enemy.

9. For Ur-Fascism there is no struggle for life but, rather, life is lived for struggle.

Thus pacifism is trafficking with the enemy. It is bad because life is permanent warfare. This, however, brings about an Armageddon complex. Since enemies have to be defeated, there must be a final battle, after which the movement will have control of the world. But such "final solutions" implies a further era of peace, a Golden Age, which contradicts the principle of permanent war. No fascist leader has ever succeeded in solving this predicament.

10. Elitism is a typical aspect of any reactionary ideology, insofar as it is fundamentally aristocratic, and aristocratic and militaristic elitism cruelly implies contempt for the weak.

Ur-Fascism can only advocate a popular elitism. Every citizen belongs to the best people in the world, the members or the party are the best among the citizens, every citizen can (or ought to) become a member of the party. But there cannot be patricians without plebeians. In fact, the Leader, knowing that his power was not delegated to him democratically but was conquered by force, also knows that his force is based upon the weakness of the masses; they are so weak as to need and deserve a ruler.

11. In such a perspective everybody is educated to become a hero.

In every mythology the hero is an exceptional being, but in Ur-Fascist ideology heroism is the norm. This cult of heroism is strictly linked with the cult of death. It is not by chance that a motto of the Spanish Falangists was Viva la Muerte ("Long Live Death!"). In nonfascist societies, the lay public is told that death is unpleasant but must be faced with dignity; believers are told that it is the painful way to reach a supernatural happiness. By contrast, the Ur-Fascist hero craves heroic death, advertised as the best reward for a heroic life. The Ur-Fascist hero is impatient to die. In his impatience, he more frequently sends other people to death.

12. Since both permanent war and heroism are difficult games to play, the Ur-Fascist transfers his will to power to sexual matters.

This is the origin of machismo (which implies both disdain for women and intolerance and condemnation of nonstandard sexual habits, from chastity to homosexuality). Since even sex is a difficult game to play, the Ur-Fascist hero tends to play with weapons -- doing so becomes an ersatz phallic exercise.

13. Ur-Fascism is based upon a selective populism, a qualitative populism, one might say.

In a democracy, the citizens have individual rights, but the citizens in their entirety have a political impact only from a quantitative point of view -- one follows the decisions of the majority. For Ur-Fascism, however, individuals as individuals have no rights, and the People is conceived as a quality, a monolithic entity expressing the Common Will. Since no large quantity of human beings can have a common will, the Leader pretends to be their interpreter. Having lost their power of delegation, citizens do not act; they are only called on to play the role of the People. Thus the People is only a theatrical fiction. There is in our future a TV or Internet populism, in which the emotional response of a selected group of citizens can be presented and accepted as the Voice of the People.

Because of its qualitative populism, Ur-Fascism must be against "rotten" parliamentary governments. Wherever a politician casts doubt on the legitimacy of a parliament because it no longer represents the Voice of the People, we can smell Ur-Fascism.

14. Ur-Fascism speaks Newspeak.

Newspeak was invented by Orwell, in Nineteen Eighty-Four, as the official language of what he called Ingsoc, English Socialism. But elements of Ur-Fascism are common to different forms of dictatorship. All the Nazi or Fascist schoolbooks made use of an impoverished vocabulary, and an elementary syntax, in order to limit the instruments for complex and critical reasoning. But we must be ready to identify other kinds of Newspeak, even if they take the apparently innocent form of a popular talk show.

* * *

Ur-Fascism is still around us, sometimes in plainclothes. It would be so much easier for us if there appeared on the world scene somebody saying, "I want to reopen Auschwitz, I want the Blackshirts to parade again in the Italian squares." Life is not that simple. Ur-Fascism can come back under the most innocent of disguises. Our duty is to uncover it and to point our finger at any of its new instances — every day, in every part of the world. Franklin Roosevelt's words of November 4, 1938, are worth recalling: "If American democracy ceases to move forward as a living force, seeking day and night by peaceful means to better the lot of our citizens, fascism will grow in strength in our land." Freedom and liberation are an unending task.

Umberto Eco (c) 1995

cushioncrawler
03-28-2011, 04:12 PM
Interesting.
Green Monarchy might hav the answer.
mac.

LWW
03-29-2011, 03:51 AM
Gee is just using words she doesn't understand again.