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Thread: gravity waves and gravity speed.

  1. #51
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    “One of my friends came in and he was smoking his pipe,”..... “He put some smoke over the cryostat and we saw that the smoke was going to the ceiling all the time.........” Tests showed a small drop in the weight of objects placed over the device, as if it were shielding the object from the effects of gravity......The team found that even the air pressure vertically above the device dropped slightly, with the effect detectable directly above the device on every floor of the laboratory.”..............
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    Gravity tests are diffikult. How do u differentiate tween gravity & charge & magnetizm & inertia etc?? Podkletnov's equipment & methodology had it all. I reckon Podkletnov's ascending smoke kood be explained by Miles Mathis uzing Mile's charge field theorys. But i want to explain it uzing aetheric gravity & inertia. The answer probly involvs both (charge and aether).

    A horizontally spinning disc will emit an axial-ray of aether vertically upwards, and another downwards.
    Lets say the background cosmic aether-wind iz 430km/s (or 420 or 486 or something), at 15dg below horizontal at the Equator. Lets say Earth's gravity creates an aether-stream sinking vertically at 10km/s. Lets say the axial-up-ray iz 1km/s (& the down-ray iz 1km/s).
    But aether-winds and aether-streams and aether-rays wont necessaryly affekt wt. Constant aether-speed wont affekt wt, only aether-acceleration affekts wt. So we are looking for accelerations. We kan ignore the background cosmic-wind, there iz allmost zero acceleration there. Nextly consider Earth's gravity, this iz a strong acceleration, but it iz fairly uniform in every part of the building (ie it iz the same inside a ray and outside). Therefore we kan ignore Earth's gravity too. Nextly consider the disc's gravity, this akts towards the disc -- it iz very weak, and therefore we kan ignore it too.
    This leevs us with the disc's axial-rays, created by radial-inertia. I reckon that there iz a significant amount of upwards acceleration & downwards acceleration in our axial-rays very near the disc (when closer than r/2), quickly dekreecing, there being allmost zero acceleration once further than r. This duznt look very good, they are hardly rays at all, just small little sawn-off runts of rays. Certainly not strong rays laughing at ceilings and floors and roof az they disappear up into the clouds and down into the ground.

    So acceleration iz a bit of a fizzer, lets look elsewhere. Now things get tricky. Lets just look at the axial-up-ray on its own, ignoring aether-wind and aether-streams. The up-ray iz 1km/s near the disc, and 1km/s all the way up to the clouds. And the aether outside the ray iz stationary (in effekt). A Nobel Medallion will weigh the same inside the ray and outside.
    But if u moov that Nobel from outside the ray to inside, the Nobel will feel an upwards force whilst crossing the boundary. The aether haz a different speed outside & inside, thusly aetherons in the Nobel will be accelerated upwards whilst crossing the boundary. That acceleration will be very strong, but very brief. If the Nobel iz in a pan of a balance (with wts in the other pan) the pan will lift whilst crossing the boundary (the Nobel appears to looz wt briefly). U kood say that this loss iz due to pseudo-inertia. An exiting pan would sink.
    A puff of smoke entering the up-ray will be whisked upwards, then whilst exiting on the other side it will be whisked downwards. Podkletnov will see a column of ascending smoke, even if the smoke iz only passing throo.
    I havnt mentioned the aether and smoke being sucked in at the rim of the disc. This smoke will then enter the axial-rays & ascend (& descend). An inevitable & powerfull effekt. No need to wait for smoke to blunder into the rays.

    So, we hav one up-ray, but two different ray-forces. We hav the shortish-range force due to accelerating-aether, and we hav the longish-range force due to the pseudo-acceleration effekt due to crossing the boundary. Combined, we get a worthy ray.
    In fakt we hav two up-rays. The ray due to accelerating aether will allways be a sharp vertical circle. Aether acceleration haz a speed of at least 20,000,000,000*c, therefore the background cosmic aether-wind blowing at 430km/s will hav little effekt on its vertical angle (ie zero aberration)(even tho the aether iz mooving at only 1km/s). But its first-born, the ray due to aether-speed (giving pseudo-acceleration & pseudo-inertia), will be stretched downstream by the aether-wind, & will be a weak wall of smoke rather than a strong column.

    At latitudes abov 75dg the background aether-wind kan be vertical (beware of polar bears). There would be zero stretching, both rays would be nearnuff identical, forming one sharp ray, & we would see a strong column of ascending smoke.
    Better still, stay where u are, and align the disc's axis to the background aether-wind. At lat15dg the axis might be horizontal. Aktually i reckon that horizontal columns of smoke would be just az strong az vertical columns, anywhere.

    A special disc iznt needed. U don't need special elements, magnetizm, low temperature, vibration. A big strong heavy disc spinning at 100,000 rpm shood do the trick. I think Podkletnov didn't go past 30,000rpm, & got up to 9% wt loss (interview).
    Air and birds etc entering the rays will rob energy from the disc. Their drag will communicate to the disc. This iznt rocket science. What iznt obvious iz that an upwards force in the ray might rezult in a downwards force on the disc. A central force or a balanced force mightn't hurt the disc. But offcenter forces in the rays might lead to bad vibrations in the disc. (Still thinking bout this).
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 04-20-2014 at 02:28 AM.

  2. #52
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    Joseph Larmor From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Born 11 July 1857 Magheragall, County Antrim, Ireland Died 19 May 1942 (aged 84) Holywood, County Down, Northern Ireland[1]
    Fields Physics
    Institutions St John's College, Cambridge Queen's College, Galway
    Alma mater Royal Belfast Academical Institution Queen's University Belfast University of Cambridge
    Doctoral students Robert Schlapp David Burnett Kwan-ichi Terazawa
    Known for Larmor precession Larmor radius Larmor's theorem Larmor formula Relativity of simultaneity
    Notable awards Smith's Prize (1880) Senior Wrangler (1880) Fellow of the Royal Society (1892) Adams Prize (1898)
    Lucasian Professor of Mathematics (1903) De Morgan Medal (1914) Royal Medal (1915) Copley Medal (1921)

    Sir Joseph Larmor FRS[2] (11 July 1857 – 19 May 1942) was a physicist and mathematician who made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the electron theory of matter. His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a theoretical physics book published in 1900.

    He grew up in Belfast, the son of a shopkeeper. He was a student at Royal Belfast Academical Institution, Queen's University Belfast, and St John's College, Cambridge where he was Senior Wrangler.[3] After teaching physics for a few years at Queen's College, Galway, he accepted a lectureship in mathematics at Cambridge in 1885. In 1903 he was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, a post he retained until his retirement in 1932. He never married.

    Larmor proposed that the aether could be represented as a homogeneous fluid medium which was perfectly incompressible and elastic. Larmor believed the aether was separate from matter. He united Lord Kelvin's model of spinning gyrostats (see Vortex theory of the atom) with this theory.

    Parallel to the development of Lorentz ether theory, Larmor published the Lorentz transformations in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1897 some two years before Hendrik Lorentz (1899, 1904) and eight years before Albert Einstein (1905). Larmor however did not possess the correct velocity transformations, which include the addition of velocities law, which were later discovered by Henri Poincaré.

    Larmor predicted the phenomenon of time dilation, at least for orbiting electrons, and verified that the FitzGerald–Lorentz contraction (length contraction) should occur for bodies whose atoms were held together by electromagnetic forces.

    In his book Aether and Matter (1900), he again presented the Lorentz transformations, time dilation and length contraction (treating these as dynamic rather than kinematic effects). Larmor opposed Albert Einstein's theory of relativity (though he supported it for a short time). Larmor rejected both the curvature of space and the special theory of relativity, to the extent that he claimed that an absolute time was essential to astronomy (Larmor 1924, 1927).

    Larmor held that matter consisted of particles moving in the aether. Larmor believed the source of electric charge was a "particle" (which as early as 1894 he was referring to as the electron). Thus, in what was apparently the first specific prediction of time dilation, he wrote "... individual electrons describe corresponding parts of their orbits in times shorter for the [rest] system in the ratio (1 – v2/c2)1/2" (Larmor 1897).

    Larmor held that the flow of charged particles constitutes the current of conduction (but was not part of the atom). Larmor calculated the rate of energy radiation from an accelerating electron. Larmor explained the splitting of the spectral lines in a magnetic field by the oscillation of electrons.

    In 1919, Larmor proposed sunspots are self-regenerative dynamo action on the Sun's surface.
    He received the honorary Doctor of Laws (LL.D) from the University of Glasgow in June 1901.[4]....
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 04-17-2014 at 04:55 PM.

  3. #53
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    What contribution duz Earth's mass make to aether inflow speed at Earth's surface??
    Some say that the inflow speed iz 11.2km/s, ie the same az Earth's theoretical escape speed. This sounds logical.

    I found one scientist who sayd that it karnt be exactly 11.2km/s, koz for one thing gravity-mass duznt equal inertia-mass.
    In other words the energy needed to lift a Nobel Medallion away from Earth iznt the same az the energy gained when u let the Medallion fall back. I forget hiz reasoning, but this guy thinx a bit like me.

    Reversing the argument, if the cosmic background aether wind iz 460km/s then that might be nearnuff the speed needed to escape our bit of the cosmos. But at a cosmic scale one would havta take into account Pseudo-Mass, that i mentioned earlyer, Pseudo-mass iz due to aether creation at cosmic-cell center. It would inkreec the needed escape velocity. Anyhow escape from our cosmic-cell would be komplikated, and anyhow u would only be escaping to an adjacent cosmic cell.

    My Pseudo-Mass shoodnt be confuzed with other types of pseudo-mass.
    For instance Mathis' charge-field affekts measured-wt, and thusly charge-field-wt iz a form of pseudo-mass. And, charge-field-wt kan be pozitiv or negativ depending on where u are on Earth. Charge-field-pseudo-mass wouldn't affekt a body's inertia.
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 04-19-2014 at 08:15 PM.

  4. #54
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    Podkletnov's disc had special elements, magnetizm, low temperature, & vibration. Any simple big strong heavy disc would hav sufficed. I think Podkletnov's special disc didn't go past 30,000rpm, & got up to 9% wt loss (interview). Had Podkletnov thrown the krappy ceramic disc in the junkbin he kood hav gotten over 100,000rpm.

    I karnt see how vibration would affekt Podkletnov's disc's mass, nor the Medallion's wt. The disc's rest-mass iz fixed, and it duznt vary with speed or spin (rest-mass = stationary mass in a stationary aether). If the disc iz going at a different speed to the aether (ie if slipping) then its real-mass iz still the same, but its apparent-mass will be (might be) more. Vibrating the disc up&down would change its speed up&down, but its real-mass wouldn't change, and neither would the wt of a Nobel Medallion sitting just abov the horizontal disc (wt being due to Earth's gravity).

    I don't think vibration would affekt Earth's attraction. All aetherons eat aether at the same rate no matter what the slippage (we think). But praps over time the disc's average attraction to Earth would be a little stronger when vibrating up&down. In theory the gravity gain when a bit closer to Earth would be larger than the gravity-loss when a bit further from Earth. But this would be a very weak effekt. And anyhow none of this kan alter the Medallion's wt.

    4th Ticking Law. Clock-ticking iz related to aether-slippage. A clock mooving at the same velocity az the aether-wind haz zero aether-slippage and ticks faster than other clocks. An identical clock with a different V will feel aether-wind, it will hav aether-slippage, and it will tick slower. The direktion of slippage iznt important, koz ticking haznt got direktion. Re clocks, we need to know what a clocks real-ticking-rate would be when slippage iz zero. And we need to know the aktual-ticking-rate. Hencely we need to know the aether-wind for any clock (or object or observer). Scientists need to know real-ticking-rate and aktual-ticking-rate to allow them to calculate real-elapsed-time. But sick-science trys to uze Frankeinsteinian Relativity. Anyhow relativity needs two time transforms, one to help measure the rate of internal-ticking, and one to help measure the ticking needed for light to transfer info to and from the observer.
    1st Ticking Law. There iz no such thing az universal-time.
    2nd Ticking Law. There iz no such thing az time, time iz imaginary (but ticking iz real).
    3rd Ticking Law. Ticking haznt got direction, or, it haz, forward only (u karnt go back in time).

    If the disc iz vibrating then the ticking-rate of its internal-clock would be changing, but over a long period its vibrating-clock would show the same time az when not vibrating. Anyhow i don't know how the disc's internal-time kood possibly affekt the Medallion's wt.

    5th Ticking Law. But Rybczyk iz bugging me, Rybczyk reckons that ticking iz affekted by force. This might simply be a different way of wording The 4th Ticking Law. Or praps force needs a new ticking-law, The 5th Ticking Law. I will vizit Rybczyk again and hav a think. Either way it wont affekt the Medallion's wt. But if a 5th Law exists then would a vibrating disc's internal ticking rate affekt a vibrating disc's wt, probly knot.

    Re Podkletnov's low temperature for the disc, this wouldn't affekt the Medallions wt. However it might affekt the charge-field. Mathis says the charge-field varys lots on Earth's surface, and says that it kan make 4% difference to apparent-wt (ie the measured-wt), but it duznt affekt gravity-wt (ie the real-wt). Anyhow, when Podkletnov weighs a Medallion he duznt know whether the wt iz due to gravity or due to charge-field or anything else. Podkletnov duznt even know that charge-field exists. And if Podkletnov iz uzing electronic scales (rather than balance scales), then the difference (error) might be off the scale (pun intended).

    I suppoze that Podkletnov iz shielding the disc and Medallion from magnetic effekts. Magnetic shielding will ensure that magnetic effekts don't affekt wt, but nothing kan shield the charge-field. Allso, magnetizm duznt affekt all substances, but charge-field duzz.
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 04-27-2014 at 02:28 AM.

  5. #55
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    Gravitational Wave Experiments with Zener Diode Quantum Detectors: Reginald T. Cahill .......................The discovery that the electron current fluctuations through Zener diode pn junctions in reverse bias mode, which arise via quantum barrier tunnelling, are completely driven by space fluctuations, has revolutionized the detection and characterization of gravitational waves, which are space fluctuations, and also has revolutionized the interpretation of probabilities in the quantum theory. Here we report new data from the very simple and cheap table-top gravitational wave experiment using Zener diode detectors, and reveal the implications for the nature of space and time, and for the quantum theory of “matter”, and the emergence of the “classical world” as space-induced wave function turbulence: gravitational waves, using electron current fluctuations in reverse bias mode Zener diodes, separated by a mere 25cm, that permitted the absolute determination of the 3-space velocity of some 500 km/s, in agreement with the speed and direction from a number of previous analyses...............The experimental results reveal the nature of the dominant gravitational wave effects; they are caused by turbulence / fluctuations in the passing dynamical space, a space missing from physics theories, until its recent discovery.........

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    So, the background aether-wind haz fluctuations or turbulence. But why duz Cahill call it gravity-waves?? Gravity waves don't exist.

    Gravity-attraction (explanation No1). Earth's mass iz a sink for aether (aether iz partly annihilated), & aether flows inwards to fill the void. A dropped ball falls to Earth koz it iz dragged by aether accelerating towards Earth. Acceleration iz due to aether-streamlines converging az they get closer to Earth. The background aether-wind iz a constant flow with zero acceleration & duznt affekt falling.
    Gravity-attraction (explanation No2) iz due to aetherons eating aether, pulling aether in towards aetherons, rezulting in aether-tension tween aetherons, thusly pulling aetherons towards eech other. So, the ball falls towards Earth, & Earth falls towards the ball. I say aether drags the ball, but this iznt quite korrekt, aether karnt drag anything, koz, alltho aether iz very strong, it haz zero mass. Hencely aether kan only transfer a pull or push from one aetheron to another aetheron. So in our case the ball pulls on Earth & vice versa.
    Aetheron... The smallest subatomic particle with either inertial-mass or with gravity-mass (some particles hav mass & some don't).

    STRIKE 1. Aether-Hammer. Changes in aether acceleration & aether-tension moov throo the cosmos at at least 20,000,000,000*c. For large bodys at large seperations the feedback process produces a back&forth aether-hammer. This hammer iz a gravity-tsunami (not a gravity-wave). But I don't think that super-fast hammer iz the source of Cahill's slow fluctuations or slow turbulence in the slow background aether-wind.

    STRIKE 2. Aether-turbulence iznt due to gravity. Gravity-Mass duznt drag aether. It karnt, koz aether drags gravity-mass. U karnt hav aether dragging the ball & the ball dragging aether, u hav one or the other. The ball haz inertia-mass & fights back, but this iz a secondary reaction. The background aether-wind (500km/s??) blowing throo & past a body iz slightly modyfyd by this aether-gravity-inflow (for Earth 11.2km/s??). But this modyfycation iz smooth & uniform & constant -- the mass of the ball haz been stable for years, & its aether-gravity-flow likewize. Gravity duznt make aether-eddys or turbulence in the aether-wind downstream. Aether-turbulence iznt due to gravity.

    The gravity equation M*m iz wrong. A ball with zero mass would fall to Earth. If aether accelerates then everything accelerates with it, koz everything iz of the aether (even aether-hammer falls towards Earth). Ranzan departs entirely from M*m. Cahill allso shows why M*m iz wrong. Mac's reason iz No4. Mathis' charge field iz No3.

    STRIKE 3. Aether-turbulence might be due to aether-drag. We allready know (abov) that gravity-mass karnt drag aether. But inertia-mass kan drag aether. A long way back i explained that gravity-mass and inertia-mass are different animals made by different processes (aktually 4 different animals). But inertia-mass iz in effekt zero unless there iz acceleration (u know what i meen). Inertia-mass karnt drag aether by just sitting there, or by just gliding along at constant speed.

    STRIKE 4. Radial acceleration due to spin iz different to lineal acceleration. Radial acceleration iznt zero even when the spin iz constant. Radial inertia will tend to drag aether towards the center of spin. Here radial inertia iz doing the dragging. Inertia drags aether -- unlike gravity where aether duz the dragging. Anyhow, radial aether-inertial-inflow will be uniform & constant, thusly zero turbulence here.

    STRIKE 5. Ordinary lineal inertial acceleration duznt drag aether. It duznt, koz force = reaction. Inertia in one direktion needs a matching inertia in the opposit direktion. It takes two to tango, and hencely nett lineal acceleration and net-inertia are allways zero. Likewize inertia of spin-up during spin-up kood drag aether, but duznt, koz force = reaction, ie nett spin-up inertia iz zero. Thusly zero turbulence here.

    STRIKE 6. Radial acceleration due to orbit duznt drag aether inwards. Orbits are just a manifestation of ordinary gravity, thusly zero drag here. However, there will be a weak non-gravity (ie inertial) force & inertial centripetal acceleration, due to the solidity of the body, creating a weak inwards aether-drag (towards the center of orbit). Anyhow, az well az being weak, this drag wont be turbulent. The solidity-effekt iz why Earth haz tides, Earth haz air-tides & water-tides koz it iz mostly solid.

    Furthermore re spinning bodys, spinning bodys are partly orbiting and partly spinning. Aetherons in the spinning body are partly orbiting and partly spinning. There iz a weak internal gravity-attraction keeping the body together, and this kood be sayd to create a weak orbit-effekt around the spin-axis. But the main force keeping the spinning body together iznt gravity. And this main (nett) force iz what creates drag, dragging aether in towards the center of spin. The orbital bit duznt create drag. This aint rocket science.

    The source of Cahill's turbulence must be very esoteric. Praps it iz some sort of matter-turbulence. Still thinking, i will find it.
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 05-04-2014 at 04:46 PM.

  6. #56
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    Gravity is associated most strongly with two physicists - Newton and Einstein.

  7. #57
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    Here iz a good question for scientists. Why koodnt Newton think of a good hypothesis for gravity?????
    Answer. Koz the word gravity didn't exist. Later, Newton invented the word gravity. Which woz a silly thing to do, koz after inventing it, he koodnt properly define it, nor hypothesize it. He shood hav invented an eezyer word.

    Frankeinstein blamed gravity on the bending of space & time, wrong of course. But it iznt well known that Albert woz lucky that we kood see. If humans were blind then Alby's special theory of relativity would hav looked different. Al would hav been talking bout a passenger on a passing train clapping hiz hands and being heard by an observer standing on the platform. In fakt the observer wouldn't be an observer koz he iz blind, so i shood call him a hearer. Anyhow the hearer would hear the clap kumming from the korrekt direction if the train carriage woz a flattop, but would hear it kumming from the wrong direction if the carriage iz enclosed koz the air in the carriage iz travelling at the same speed az the clapper. Thusly if humans were blind then Alby's special theory would look completely different, and the general theory of gravity would look different too.

    It gets worse, if humans were blind and deaf, then the passenger would hav to touch the feeler standing on the platform.
    Here the special theory gets complicated. The sensational speed of a touch-photon along the nerve pathways from hand to brain iz about c/3,000,000 km/s. After the touch-photon reaches the touchy-feely part of the brain then it must go an additional distance to the tickerthalamus, the brains internal clock, and then back. Thusly Alby's estimate of speed depends on Al's size (ie hiz mass, m), especially the length of hiz arm (A) and the size of hiz cranium (c). We kan kall this ratio A/c. In fakt the message moovs across the brain twice, so the korrekt ratio iz A/c^2. And we kan write m = A/c^2. This transposes to A = mc^2. This would hav bekum the most famous equation in all of science, if only we were deaf and blind. And of course it would havta be written in brail.

    Alby's general theory would look like this (feel like this). Al would say that gravity iz due to surface-bending. A blind walker walking on a non-level surface would walk in a circular path, even tho he felt he woz walking straight. If the surface formed a continuous conical circuit, then a blind-observer would see the walker circle back to the start.

    If the walker woz wearing sneakers manufactured by Mercury Footwear, Alby might hav predicted that if one heel woz more worn than the other then the walker's tracks would precess 43" each orbit. This would be a periheelion proof.
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 04-21-2014 at 09:59 PM.

  8. #58
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    Gravitational-wave detector From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    A gravitational-wave detector is any device designed to measure gravitational waves, tiny distortions of spacetime that are predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity. The existence of gravitational radiation is a prediction of general relativity. Gravitational waves are perturbations in the curvature of spacetime caused by accelerated masses. Since the 1960s gravitational-wave detectors have been built and constantly improved. The present-day generation of resonant mass antennas and laser interferometers has reached the necessary sensitivity to detect gravitational waves from sources in the Milky Way. As of early 2014, no direct detection of gravitational waves has yet been accomplished, although a number of experiments have now added to the evidence that gravitational waves are more than mathematical anomalies of relativity calculations (ref. the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics).

    The direct detection of gravitational waves is complicated by the extraordinarily small effect the waves would produce on a detector. The amplitude of a spherical wave will fall off as the inverse of the distance from the source. Thus, even waves from extreme systems like merging binary black holes die out to very small amplitude by the time they reach the Earth. Astrophysicists expect that some gravitational waves passing the Earth may be as large as h\approx 10^{-18}, but generally no bigger.[citation needed]

    Weber bars[edit]
    A simple device to detect the expected wave motion is called a Weber bar – a large, solid bar of metal isolated from outside vibrations. This type of instrument was the first type of gravitational-wave detector. Strains in space due to an incident gravitational wave excite the bar's resonant frequency and could thus be amplified to detectable levels. Conceivably, a nearby supernova might be strong enough to be seen without resonant amplification. Modern forms of the Weber bar are still operated, cryogenically cooled, with superconducting quantum interference devices to detect vibration (see for example, ALLEGRO). Weber bars are not sensitive enough to detect anything but extremely powerful gravitational waves.[5]

    MiniGRAIL is a spherical gravitational-wave antenna using this principle. It is based at Leiden University, consisting of an exactingly machined 1150 kg sphere cryogenically cooled to 20 mK.[6] The spherical configuration allows for equal sensitivity in all directions, and is somewhat experimentally simpler than larger linear devices requiring high vacuum. Events are detected by measuring deformation of the detector sphere. MiniGRAIL is highly sensitive in the 2–4 kHz range, suitable for detecting gravitational waves from rotating neutron star instabilities or small black hole mergers.[7]

    AURIGA is an ultracryogenic resonant bar gravitational wave detector based at INFN in Italy. It is based on a cylindrical bar detector. The AURIGA and LIGO teams have collaborated in joint observations.[8]

    Atomic interferometry.
    A more sensitive detector uses laser interferometry to measure gravitational-wave induced motion between separated 'free' masses.[9] This allows the masses to be separated by large distances (increasing the signal size); a further advantage is that it is sensitive to a wide range of frequencies (not just those near a resonance as is the case for Weber bars). Ground-based interferometers are now operational. Currently, the most sensitive is LIGO – the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory. LIGO has three detectors: one in Livingston, Louisiana; the other two (in the same vacuum tubes) at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington. Each consists of two light storage arms which are 2 to 4 kilometers in length. These are at 90 degree angles to each other, with the light passing through 1m diameter vacuum tubes running the entire 4 kilometers. A passing gravitational wave will slightly stretch one arm as it shortens the other. This is precisely the motion to which an interferometer is most sensitive.

    Even with such long arms, the strongest gravitational waves will only change the distance between the ends of the arms by at most roughly 10−18 meters. LIGO should be able to detect gravitational waves as small as h \approx 5\times 10^{-22}. Upgrades to LIGO and other detectors such as VIRGO, GEO 600, and TAMA 300 should increase the sensitivity still further; the next generation of instruments (Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo) will be more than ten times more sensitive. Another highly sensitive interferometer (LCGT) is currently in the design phase. A key point is that a ten-times increase in sensitivity (radius of "reach") increases the volume of space accessible to the instrument by one thousand. This increases the rate at which detectable signals should be seen from one per tens of years of observation, to tens per year.

    Interferometric detectors are limited at high frequencies by shot noise, which occurs because the lasers produce photons randomly; one analogy is to rainfall – the rate of rainfall, like the laser intensity, is measurable, but the raindrops, like photons, fall at random times, causing fluctuations around the average value. This leads to noise at the output of the detector, much like radio static. In addition, for sufficiently high laser power, the random momentum transferred to the test masses by the laser photons shakes the mirrors, masking signals at low frequencies. Thermal noise (e.g., Brownian motion) is another limit to sensitivity. In addition to these "stationary" (constant) noise sources, all ground-based detectors are also limited at low frequencies by seismic noise and other forms of environmental vibration, and other "non-stationary" noise sources; creaks in mechanical structures, lightning or other large electrical disturbances, etc. may also create noise masking an event or may even imitate an event. All these must be taken into account and excluded by analysis before a detection may be considered a true gravitational-wave event.

    Space-based interferometers, such as LISA and DECIGO, are also being developed. LISA's design calls for three test masses forming an equilateral triangle, with lasers from each spacecraft to each other spacecraft forming two independent interferometers. LISA is planned to occupy a solar orbit trailing the Earth, with each arm of the triangle being five million kilometers. This puts the detector in an excellent vacuum far from Earth-based sources of noise, though it will still be susceptible to shot noise, as well as artifacts caused by cosmic rays and solar wind.

    High frequency detectors[edit]
    There are currently two detectors focusing on detections at the higher end of the gravitational-wave spectrum (10−7 to 105 Hz)[citation needed]: one at University of Birmingham, England, and the other at INFN Genoa, Italy. A third is under development at Chongqing University, China. The Birmingham detector measures changes in the polarization state of a microwave beam circulating in a closed loop about one meter across. Two have been fabricated and they are currently expected to be sensitive to periodic spacetime strains of h\sim{2 \times 10^{-13}/\sqrt{\mathit{Hz}}} , given as an amplitude spectral density. The INFN Genoa detector is a resonant antenna consisting of two coupled spherical superconducting harmonic oscillators a few centimeters in diameter. The oscillators are designed to have (when uncoupled) almost equal resonant frequencies. The system is currently expected to have a sensitivity to periodic spacetime strains of h\sim{2 \times 10^{-17}/\sqrt{\mathit{Hz}}} , with an expectation to reach a sensitivity of h\sim{2 \times 10^{-20}/\sqrt{\mathit{Hz}}} . The Chongqing University detector is planned to detect relic high-frequency gravitational waves with the predicted typical parameters ?g ~ 1010 Hz (10 GHz) and h ~ 10−30–10−31.

    Pulsar timing arrays[edit]
    A different approach to detecting gravitational waves is used by pulsar timing arrays, such as the European Pulsar Timing Array,[10] the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves,[11] and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array.[12] These projects propose to detect gravitational waves by looking at the effect these waves have on the incoming signals from an array of 20–50 well-known millisecond pulsars. As a gravitational wave passing through the Earth contracts space in one direction and expands space in another, the times of arrival of pulsar signals from those directions are shifted correspondingly. By studying a fixed set of pulsars across the sky, these arrays should be able to detect gravitational waves in the nanohertz range. Such signals are expected to be emitted by pairs of merging supermassive black holes.[13]

    Specific operational gravitational-wave detectors[edit]
    CLIO. GEO600. LCGT. LIGO. MiniGrail. New Gravitational wave Observatory (NGO, formerly LISA). Pulsar timing array TAMA300. Virgo interferometer.

    Ground-based (operational)
    AURIGA· CLIO· GEO 600· Virgo· MiniGrail· Mario Schenberg

    Ground-based (under construction)
    KAGRA· Advanced LIGO

    Ground-based (proposed)

    Ground-based (decommissioned)
    ALLEGRO· Initial and Enhanced LIGO· TAMA 300

    Space-based (planned and proposed)

    Astronomical (Pulsar Timing)
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 04-23-2014 at 06:49 PM.

  9. #59
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Ballarat Australia
    .................Gravitational waves are perturbations in the curvature of spacetime caused by accelerated masses. .............
    Slight problem. There iz no such thing az space-time, thusly no curvature, no perturbation. Anyhow if they find something gravitational, how kood it proov space-time, or curvature, or perturbation?? Mightbe they shot the wrong animal.

    But how kood an accelerating mass make a gravity-wave??? Force = Reaction. Every accelerating mass haz an opposit mate or mates. During an explosion there would be zero nett inertial perturbation (& zero total inertial perturbation).

    And are they looking for a single wave, or waves?? If a single wave, then the length of the detector would best be a half wavelength. If multiple waves then if the length accommodated 3 waves (or worse 13 waves or 103 waves) it wouldn't be az sensitiv. They mention high-frequency waves. A single wave duznt hav a frequency, thusly they meen waves not wave. Or praps it iz a single wave and they meen its duration (ie a pseudo-frequency). If a single wave, duz it hav an equal plus bit and minus bit?? If so then its a wave, if not then its a pulse.

    What duz the mythical animal (a gravitational-wave) look like?? They hav permits to shoot or trap 10 species of mythical animal................
    ...........tiny distortions of spacetime
    ...........gravitational radiation
    ...........perturbations in the curvature of spacetime
    ...........Strains in space
    ...........detectable signals
    ...........the expected wave motion
    ...........periodic spacetime strains
    ...........the higher end of the gravitational-wave spectrum
    ..........relic high-frequency gravitational waves

    Where duz the mythical animal breed?? The abov article mentions 6 habitats..........
    ...........Conceivably, a nearby supernova might be strong enough to be seen without resonant amplification.
    ...........Such signals are expected to be emitted by pairs of merging supermassive black holes. detect gravitational waves from sources in the Milky Way.
    ...........Gravitational waves are perturbations in the curvature of spacetime caused by accelerated masses
    ...........for detecting gravitational waves from rotating neutron star instabilities or small black hole mergers.

    Some of the detectors detect ringing after the pulse haz passed, Ok. But some detectors measure changes in length or distance az the pulse iz passing. I reckon a passing pulse would change their laser & distance equally & at the same time, giving a false-null rezult. But, with a dud-trap, for a mythical animal, they wont get a false null-rezult, they will get a true no-rezult. Naturally they will receive heaps more dud-dollars next year, for a better dud-trap.

    ....................As of early 2014, no direct detection of gravitational waves has yet been accomplished,..................
    But the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics will surely be followed by many more Medallions. The dud-trap haz been set, and surely some sort of real animal will eventually blunder into it. Any animal will do, even a baby.

    Their best looking dud-trap iz 4km long. If gravity-pulses travel at c, then a pulse would travel 4km in 4/300,000 seconds. But if a pulse travels at 20,000,000,000*c then it would cover 4km in 4/6,000,000,000,000,000 seconds. We need a bigger dud-trap. I would suggest at least 40,000,000,000km long.
    Cahill's gravity-pulses (aether-turbulence) travel at only 500km/s, the speed of the background aether-wind, & would cover 4km in 4/500 seconds. At this pedestrian rate the trappers might drift off to bed while the pulse iz still mooching around in the 4km dud-trap. Cahill's brilliant table-top experiment, uzing borrowed meters, rented room, recycled cables, stolen bits'n'pieces & spare parts, cost about $110 -- of which $10 woz for 10 new zener-diodes, and $100 woz for the antique-table. Wiki duznt tell us the cost of sick-science's dud-traps. Cahills four (??) groundbreaking experiments (during 8yrs) probly cost a total of $100,000 (Igor haz joined the union). Sick-science haz probly wasted $1,000,000,000 on their krappy dud-traps (& more dud-dollars to kum).
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 05-01-2014 at 09:11 PM.

  10. #60
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Ballarat Australia
    The source of Cahill's turbulence must be very esoteric. Praps it iz some sort of matter-turbulence. Still thinking, i will find it.

    STRIKE 7. Explosiv conversion of mass to energy, ie a sudden loss of mass. Loss of mass would send out a weak negativ sort of hi-speed shockwave, at at least 20,000,000,000*c. No slow-motion turbulence here. Some of the exploded matter would be travelling at hi-speed towards Earth. But at all times the overall effektiv mass of an expanding spherical debris field would remain az if at a fixed central point. No nett effekt here.

    STRIKE 8. Aether-vortex. Some scientists reckon that aether-gravity-inflow to Earth forms an aether-vortex or two. Certainly rizing Earthly-air allmost allways forms a vortex, & aether iz a sort of fluid. But it iz diffikult to imagin an eather-vortex, mainly koz the background aether-wind iz say 500km/s, and Earthly aether-gravity-inflow iz only say 11.2km/s.
    Earthly air-vortexes often hav fifteen drivers.
    Driver No1. A bubble of warm air (heated by the Sun) at ground level iz less dense & hencely rizes and pulls more warm air inwards.
    Driver No2. Rizing air uzually forms a natural vortex, a rotating column of rizing air.
    Driver No3. Sunshine evaporates moisture at ground level, moist air iz less dense than dry air & hencely rizes even more so.
    Driver No4. The hi-speed wind allso inkreeces evaporation, adding more moisture.
    Driver No5. Mac's-factor. All air-vortexes & water-vortexes are intensifyed by mac's-factor. Inner-swirls drag adjoining outer-swirls, the outer-swirls go faster (while slowing the inner-swirls). The overall rezult iz a greater spin-rate (i think air duzz 4 laps before rizing).
    Driver No6. By virtue of mac's-factor a large-scale rotation kan concentrate more of its momentum in a small vortex. Sick-science says that this iznt possible, it says that air haznt enuff viscosity (idiots). Mac's-factor iz the secret ingredient needed for fully-fledged tornadoes.
    Driver No7. This iz the wt-on-a-string-on-a-stick effekt. The rotation-rate inkreeces az radius dekreeces az the string winds around the stick.
    Driver No8. This iz the ballerina effekt, where a ballerina inkreeces her spin-rate by pulling her arms in. Pulling adds momentum to the spin. In the case of a tornado the pulling iz provided by humid air fogging due to the low internal pressure inside the vortex. Fogging dekreeces air volume, thusly dekreecing the pressure even more so, thusly maxing the fogging, & pulling the swirling air inwards.
    Driver No9. Dusty dirty air entering the column provides a nucleus for further fogging.
    Driver No10. Fogging inkreeces the temperature of the air.
    Driver No11. Low air pressures surrounding the base of the column further inkreeces evaporation and adds moisture.
    Driver No12. The less pressure the less density the more spin etc etc, a vicious circle, pulling swirling air inwards even more so.
    Driver No13. The ground provides a solid surface that prevents air entry from under, thusly allowing very low pressures.
    Driver No14. Fogging happens anew higher up in the column due to the lower pressure & temperature.
    Driver No15. Trailer parks.

    Aether duznt hav any of theze drivers. Especially az it haz zero viscosity. Thusly zero vortex, & zero turbulence.

    STRIKE 9. Some sort of matter-turbulence. Any matter turbulence that iz a long ways off wouldn't hav much effekt koz it would be negated by the "it takes two to tango" principle by the time the aether-turbulence reeches our u-beaut $110 twin zener-diode detector table-top. This refers to both inertial-matter & gravity-matter (two different things) & their effekts. But local short-range matter turbulence might hav effekt. For example air-tides or water-tides or Earth-ringing or Earth-wobble or trucks'n'buses or Igor hunching over the table (Igor iz allways hunching). But i karnt see that neither. Igor's moovment would transmit at over 20,000,000,000*c, ie a fast shock-pulse rather than slow-turbulence. Much too fast for the two (five $1 zener-diode) detectors sitting 25cm apart on the table. No, it aint matter-turbulence.

    STRIKE 10. I mentioned tides etc, ie moovments of matter. But i shood hav inklooded tidal-forces, here i meen the forces making the tides. Earth's tide-making-forces are due to the orbits of Earth & the Moon & Sun & planets, & Earth's spin, & Earth's solidity. Without going into the details of eech, the bottom-line iz that theze too would manifest az fast shock-pulses, not slow turbulence. The sources themselves might be very slow-motion things, but the point iz that all ten $1 zener-diodes would be affekted allmost instantaneously, with allmost zero time difference, slow-motion source or knot.

    STRIKE 11. Praps sick-science kan help. Where duz the mythical animal breed?? The abov article mentions 6 habitats..........
    ...........Conceivably, a nearby supernova might be strong enough to be seen without resonant amplification (see strike 1, 7).
    ...........Such signals are expected to be emitted by pairs of merging supermassive black holes (see strike 1, 2, 4, 5, 6). detect gravitational waves from sources in the Milky Way (see all strikes).
    ...........Gravitational waves are perturbations in the curvature of spacetime caused by accelerated masses (see strike 1, 5).
    ...........for detecting gravitational waves from rotating neutron star instabilities (strike 1, 4, 6) or small black hole mergers (strike 1, 2, 6).

    STRIKE 12. mac iz still thinking.
    Last edited by cushioncrawler; 04-30-2014 at 04:43 PM.

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